音符与休止符节奏,附点音符,延音连接线和休止符(音乐基础-音符与节奏2)

音符与休止符节奏,附点音符,延音连接线和休止符(音乐基础-音符与节奏2)

音乐基础学习中必须要会的一些定义和基本概念。本课程由美国全明星管弦乐团音乐总监指挥家杰拉德·施瓦茨讲授,课程中举例用的视频由全明星管弦乐团提供。中文版(翻译配音:彭蓬)视频加载中...----------------------本节

音乐基础学习中必须要会的一些定义和基本概念。本课程由美国全明星管弦乐团音乐总监指挥家杰拉德·施瓦茨讲授,课程中举例用的视频由全明星管弦乐团提供。

中文版(翻译配音:彭蓬)

视频加载中...

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本节教学视频课后问答(中英文对照)

QA

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问:这太神奇了……音乐家们怎样训练才知道每拍速度有多快,比如在快板或小快板中?

答:通常,速度记号会显示在每个作品的左上方。当他们演奏的时候,把控速度对他们而言,是自然而然的事儿。另外,他们也会根据舞台前方的指挥,来设定自己的速度。指挥是乐队的引领者。

Q:This is amazing...How are musicians trained to know how fast a pace is, like Allegro or allegretto?

A:Usually, the tempo is put on the top left of the piece. As they practice, the tempo comes naturally to them. Also, they look to the conductor in the front of the stage to set their tempo. He is the leader of the orchestra.

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问:人们为什么会用双附点音符和三附点音符来创作音乐呢?为什么不把后面的音符直接写上,再在音符上加一个连音符号呢?

答1:我想你问的是,关于音符连在一起。作为一个钢琴演奏者,需要我读的音符越少越好。如果我看到一个附点二分音符,后面跟着一个四分休止符,那么整个的小节写的就2个符号,而不是写成一个二分音符,一个四分音符,加一条连接线,再加一个四分休止符(四个符号)。

答2:两种方法都可以。就像我们用"I've"指代"I have"一样。意思一样,只是让读谱工作进行的更快些。

Q:Why people will use Double-Dotted Note and Triple-Dotted Note for creating Music? Instead of just writing another note and put a slurred sign on the notes?

A1:I believe what your asking is tying notes together. As a piano player, the fewer notes I need to read, the better. If I read a dotted half note followed by a 1/4 rest, that entire measure is written with 2 symbols, versus a half note, a 1/4 note, plus a tie, plus the 1/4 rest (4 symbols).

A2:Either one is correct. Same as we could say "I have" instead of "I've". They mean the same thing, it just gets the job done quicker.

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问:有没有比如说32分音符?有没有64分音符?

答:有,有64分音符,还有128分音符。理论上,还可以有256分音符和512分音符,只是像这样小的音符时值,在现实的音乐作品中极少能看到。

Q:If there is something such as a 32nd note, is there a 64th note?

A:Yes, there are 64th notes. There are also 128th notes. In theory, you could also have 256th and 512th notes, although notes with such small values are very rarely seen in actual compositions.

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问:如果你希望音符时值持续的更长一些,可以放两个点吗?如果不可以,为什么有的音符后面有两个点?

答:是的。你可以放两个点,这叫双附点。这些点的意思并不仅仅是“更长”,而是“再长一半”(每一个附点的作用是使音符时值增加前面的音符时值的一半。)举个例子,就比如,一个附点二分音符要演奏成3个四分音符的时长,一个双附点二分音符要被演奏成7个八分音符的时长。

Q:If you want the note to still last longer, can you put 2 dots? If not, why do some of the notes have 2 dot beside them?

A:Yes. you can put two dots and is often called "double dotted."The dots don't simply mean 'longer' they mean 'half-again-as-long.' E.g. just as one plays a dotted half-note the same length as three quarter notes, one plays a double dotted half-note the same length as seven eighth notes.

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问:歌唱家或乐队,会在音乐中使用这些符号吗?

答:据我所知,乐队并不使用这些符号。他们凭听觉而不是识谱,快速的演绎出他们的乐曲内容,然后记住。但是如果你,希望和人们分享一些没有被记录下来的乐曲,或者在乐队团体中,你有很多部分要演奏,或者音乐很长或很复杂,你可能就会使用到这些符号。自学的乐手们,也许不知道这些符号,但任何一个受正规音乐训练的乐手,都会学习这些的。

Q: Do singers/music bands use this stuff for making music for their songs ?

A: I've known bands that don't use this stuff. They all play by ear, work out their parts on the fly, and memorize. But if you are going to share your music with folks you are not recording with, or if you have a lot of parts in your group, or the music is very long and/or complicated, you will probably use this stuff. Self-taught musicians may not know this stuff, but anyone with formal music training learns it.

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问:在音乐方面我也是个初学者。现在我弹吉他已经有两年时间了,可是我并没有真正的去学习怎样读谱。所以,关于附点这块的内容,我有点不太明白。为什么不直接简单的写出那个音符,却要用附点把音符分成一半呢?

答:首先,没有某个单独的符号能代表3拍,或1.5拍等等。如果本该延长某个音的时值,却在演奏时没有延长,这会影响到这段合奏或独奏的效果的。附点就是一种延长音符时值的方法,有了附点,你就不用去读太多的延音连接线了。附点并不是半个音符时值,而是增加它所附的音符时值的一半。例如2+ (2/2) =3 拍。如果是半拍,四分之一拍等等,它们有另外的标记符号。希望这对你有帮助。

Q:I am also a beginner at this. I've played guitar for about 2 years now, and I never really learned how to read music. Therefore, I am a little confused. In regards to the dot idea. Why can not someone simply put in the correct note instead having to halve the note with a dot?

A:Well first off their is no ONE symbol to show 3 beats or 1 and a half ect. , which can effect a concert or solo by not extending the note value as it was supposed to be. The dot is a way to extend a note value in a way, so that you don't have to read ties as much, the dot does NOT half a note value, but adds half of its own value. Example 2+ (2/2) =3 beats. To do half beats, quarter beats, etc their are other symbols. Hope that helps.

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问:这个问题可能有些笨,不过我是一个初学者。为什么有些音符是颠倒的呢?

答:当作品中涉及到很多人(乐器)时,这是一种组合方式,都是为了便于读谱和清楚表示。对音符本身完全没什么影响。如果你想了解更多,在第1课的视频中有提到这个问题。

Q:this may be kind of stupid but im a beginner. why are some of the notes upside down?

A:It's a combination of both ease of reading and clarification when there are multiple people/instruments involved in the piece. It has absolutely no effect on the notes.

This is mentioned in the Lesson 1 video if you want to hear more about it.

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问:音乐里包含了数学吗?

答:是的,你可以这样说。例如,拍子记号和节奏可以看成是分数。在音乐理论或和声领域,也有很多的数理逻辑和规则。当然,你并没有必要在音乐中去进行计算。

Q:Does Music involve Math in it?

A:Yes, you could say it does, for example the time signatures and rhythm can be seen as fractions. In theory or harmony there is a lot of logic and rules as well, however you wouldn't necessarily need to make calculations in music.

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问:谁发明了音乐中的音符时值?

答:大约公元前1000年左右,一个叫圭多·德·阿雷佐的帅小伙,在音乐理论上取得了很多的进展。首先他是第一个通过增加拍子记号,让标准的五线谱变得更容易读记。然后他发明了视唱练耳。这是声乐的音阶:do, re, mi, fa, so, la ,ti, do

Q:who invented the notes for music?

A:In around 1000 CE a guy named Guido D'Arezzo made many improvements in music theory. First he improved standard notation to be easier to use by adding time signatures. Then he made solfege. This is the vocal note scale: do, re, mi, fa, so, la ,ti, do.

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问:呃,我是一个音乐初学者,我真的想弹奏钢琴,但不知道怎么做,因为我看不懂音符。比如,哪个音对应哪个键?谁能告诉我,哪个视频能教我怎么看懂音符吗?谢谢,谁能回答下...... :(

答:我告诉你另一个方法就是,去谷歌一下钢琴的音符名称。它会告诉你哪个音符对应哪个位置。(你可以发现这和几组两个或三个的黑键有关)。如果你可以找到一架真正的钢琴去弹,你可以利用便签贴,给你的键盘贴上标签以便于入门学习。这可以帮助你记住哪个音符是哪个键。在纸上写下这些键盘对应的音符,也会有帮助。这是一种更容易入门的方法,体会到哪个音符对应哪个键的感觉。学习钢琴的另一个建议就是,弹的慢一点,先分开一个手一个手的去弹,然后再双手联弹。把速度值设定的足够慢,以便能够同时使用双手弹,然后再慢慢的加快速度。如果需要的话,使用一个节拍器(在网上或APP上很容易找到)。如果你去YouTube视频里找,也有指导学习键盘和音符的内容。

Q:ok, i'm a beginner at music and i really want to play the piano but i don't know how because i don't know how to read the notes. for example, what note goes to what key? can someone please tell me which video teaches me how to read the notes? thank you and please answer! someone...... :(

A:Another tip I have is to google a piano with the note names- it will show you which notes are where (you can find this in relation to the groups of two or three black keys). If you can find a real piano to use, you can grab post-it's and label your keys to start. That can help you keep track of which notes are which. Writing in notes on the page under the staff can help and this is an easier way to begin and get the feel for which notes are which. Another tip for piano is to work slowly, separate each hand and then put them together at as slow of a tempo as needed to be able to use both hands simultaneously and then slowly speed up. Use a metronome if you need (easily found online or as apps). There are also youtube videos that show the keys as well as the notes as you go.

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问:我在校乐队已经两年了,但是还不懂十六分音符(在视频的3分31秒),它们是演奏的很快吗?或者?

答:是的,你可以这样说,相对于这个乐曲的节奏来说,它们演奏的很快。那么想想看,一个四拍的小节。每个小节,有四拍。四分音符可以数成,1,2,3,4。一个音符一拍。八分音符可以数:1嗒,2嗒,3嗒,4嗒(one - and, two - and, three - and, four - and.)。就是两个音符一拍。十六分音符数成one - e - and - a, two - e - and - a, three - e - and - a, four - e - and – a。四个音符一拍。它们都是均匀的出现在小节里的,就像前面我所说的,“快,是相对于节奏而言的”。希望对你有帮助。

Q:I've been in my school band for two years but I still don't understand sixteenth notes,3:31, r they played fast or what?

A:Yes, you could say they are fast, relative to the tempo of the music being played.

So consider a four beat measure. In every bar, there are four beats.

Quarter notes count one, two, three, four. One note played for each beat.

Eighth notes count one - and, two - and, three - and, four - and. So two notes for each beat.

Sixteenth notes count one - e - and - a, two - e - and - a, three - e - and - a, four - e - and - a. That's four notes per beat. They're all evenly measured, so as I said above, 'fast' depends on the tempo. Hope this helps.

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问:我们什么时候会学到,音符该发什么音呢?我刚开始学音乐,所以不要批评我哈。我们所演奏的是什么音呢?高还是低?

答:到目前为止,可汗学院的音乐课程部分还没有提供怎样读这些音符的课程,希望以后会有这类的课程。本视频讲的是音符和休止符。它们可以是你所希望的任何音。音符种类(四分音符、二分音符等),只是告诉你这些音符时长是多少。你可以通过看这个音符在五线谱上的位置,来判断是音是高还是低(也叫音高)。在本节视频里,它们没有体现这些音符的音,是为了让那些还不会读谱的人不至于搞混乱。

Q:When will we get to the point when what sound does the notes make?And I'm just starting music so don't judge me please. But what sounds are we working with? Is it high or low?

A:So far the Khan academy music section does not offer lessons on how to read the staff, hopefully it will in the future though.

What this lesson is teaching is notes and rests. They can be any sound you want them to be. The note type (quarter note, half note, etc.) only tells you how long the note lasts. You can tell how high or low the sound is (also called pitch) by seeing where the note is on the staff. In these videos, they just do not show the notes on the staff so that they don't confuse people who haven't yet learned how to read music.

Hope you have fun learning music!

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问:附点休止符可以用延音连接线连在一起吗,就像附点音符那样?

答:不可以的。这种附点和普通附点不一样。这和一个全音符,也就是2个二分音符,是不同的,这种你需要用连接线再次说明,但如果是休止符就没有必要用连接线提示。你只需要休止就可以。当你弹奏一个音符的时候,你有很多需要考虑的地方。但如果是休止符,那就只是休止。你只需要不弹奏就可以,没有必要把休止符连接在一起。

Q:Can the dotted rests be tied together in the same fashion as the dotted notes?

A:Not really. There isn't really point. If there was a whole note and then there was 2 half notes, that is different. You have to rearticulate. However, with rests, there is no rearticulating. You just rest. There's a lot to worry about when you play a note but when there's a rest, it's just a rest. You simply don't play. This makes it unnecessary to tie rests together.

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问:呃,在3分19秒的视频,提到了16分音符。有人解释一下吗?我没有理解,因为我弹的是吉他和尤克里里,学习它们不需要去读谱。我想学拉小提琴,但是我不能很好的读谱,额,提一个超级笨的问题,16分音符是多少拍呢?16拍?

答:16分音符的拍子,也就是时值取决于拍子记号。不过绝大多数都是四四拍的。在四四拍中,16分音符相当于一拍的四分之一。如果去数一个16分音符的完整小节,就是1-e-and-a, 2-e-and-a, 3-e-and-a, 4-e-and-a,一拍被分成四下,但不要和四分音符搞混淆了。

Q:ok, so at 3:19 he mentioned 16th notes. Could someone explain those to me? I'm clueless because I play guitar and Ukulele and I don't have to read music for them. I want to learn to play violin. but I can't read music very well, yet. So, uber stupid, but how many beats are in a 16th note? 16?

A:The beats/value of a sixteenth note varies depending on the time signature, but the most common time is 4/4. A sixteenth note in 4/4 time receives a 1/4 of ONE beat. When counting a full measure of sixteenth notes, it would be 1-e-and-a, 2-e-and-a, 3-e-and-a, 4-e-and-a. ONE beat is divided into quarters, but do not confuse this with quarter notes!

As I'm sure the video explained, a sixteenth note has 2 flags or a double-bar across the top. Remember: it's a BEAT divided in four, not a MEASURE divided in four.

Also, good luck learning the violin!

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问:一个2028分音符相当于多少拍呢?

答:实际上,在音乐中就没有这样的音符。如果一个作曲家需要使用比32分音符或64分音符更快的音符,他们只需要加一个装饰音就可以,也就是在另一个音符前被轻快的弹奏的音符。

Q:how many beats does a 2048 note worth

A:Honestly such a thing never really occurs in music. If a composer needs a note that is quicker than a 32 or 64 note, they just add a grace note, which is a lightly played, quick note before another note.

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问:在1分05秒中,提到附点会增加音符时值的一半。那么一个二分音符就是二分音符加二分音符的一半,就是1/2 + 1/4。这就是一个3/4音符,对吗?另外,我说的是在四四拍中。我对这个附点有些不太理解,请帮帮我。

答:基本来说,就是这样的。你可以把附点看成是,偷了其他音符的时值。

Q:At 1:05, it is said that the dot increases the note value by half. so a half note would be half+ half of half, which is 1/2 + 1/4.This makes a 3/4 note, right? By the way, all of this is in 4/4 time signature. I'm confused with the dot, please help!

A:Basically yeah!! You can kinda think of the dot stealing other notes places :)

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问:有双附点音符和三附点音符吗?如果有,哪些音乐作品用到这些音符?

答:有,不过主要是在古典音乐中使用。列奥波尔得·莫扎特(举世闻名的沃尔夫冈·莫扎特的父亲),是第一个在他的小提琴教科书(1769年第二版)中使用双附点音符。他的儿子沃尔夫冈·莫扎特,我觉得是第一个使用三附点音符的,在他1782年创作的D大调交响曲中。如果你点查看(加载需要时间http://www.cslsj.gov.cn/images/092016/sfna1xmrcll there Double-Dotted Note and Triple-Dotted Note? If yes, which music piece(s) has use these?

A:Yes, but they are mainly used in older music. Leopold Mozart (the more commonly known Wolfgang Mozart's father) was the first to use the double dot in his book Violin School, second edition, in 1769. His son Wolfgang Mozart was, I believe the first to use the triple dot, in his Symphony in D in 1782. If you click the view button for the overture to this piece, you will see that Mendelssohn uses the triple dot in the second bar in the fifth instrument. (Warning the page takes a moment to load.) http://www.cslsj.gov.cn/images/092016/l02jxc5fnkh learnt different names for the notes. Like a quarter note is known as a 'crotchet'. So have I done a mistake?

A:It's never a mistake to learn something if it truthful and correct. It is actually quite helpful to know the other names (crotchet and such). For instance I never knew the European names until recently, but I got a great theory book that is from the unisa theory program. Since it is from south Africa, it uses all those names. If you ever use a course book from another country, chances are it will use those names. It's kinda like knowing another language. You won't need to know it for everyday life most times, but once in a while it is very useful.

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问:这个问题可能和最后的视频,而不是本节视频相关,但我就是现在想到了。拍子记号可以是所有的数字组合在一起吗?它的开始和结束的数字,最大是多少,最小是多少?

答:拍子记号上面的数,基本上可以是2-12这个范围的任何数,会比较常见。底下的数必须指代拍子的音符时值,所以不可能是5或者7或类似的数。拍子记号规定了整个作品的基调,所以它不太可能是一个很大的数字。即使是12/8拍,也是和4/4拍很像,只是有三连音。

Q:This probably pertains more to the last video than this one, but I just thought of it now. Can the time signature be any combination of numbers at all? Is there a beginning and end to how small or large it can be?

A:The top number can basically be what ever number but 2-12 is most common. The bottom number has to refer to a note as the beat so it can't be a 5 or 7 or a number like that. Because the time signature designates the feel of the piece it's not likely to be a large number. Even 12/8 is like 4/4 just with triplets.

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问:2/4的拍子记号,是多少拍呢?有什么不同?

答:在2/4拍中,四分音符为一拍,每小节有两拍。

Q:How many beats would be in 2/4? Whats the diffrence?

A:In 2/4 time, there are two beats and the quarter note gets one beat.

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问:视频的1分29秒,讲到附点和延音连接线是可互换的。但是为什么会有两种选择呢?什么时候用附点,什么时候用延音连接线呢?

答:附点更常被用于二分音符、四分音符、八分音符上。使用附点更简洁,但有时候作者也会决定不用。只有当音符超过小节线的时候,你必须使用延音连接线。在其他情况下,是没什么特定区别的。

Q:At 1:29 it explains that using the dot or the tie are interchangeable. But why are there two options? When would you use the dot and when would you use the tie?

A:The dot is more commonly used on half notes, quarter notes, and eighth notes. It's neater to use the dot but sometimes composers decide not to. When the note extends over the bar line you have to use the tie but other that it doesn't really mater.

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问:视频0:53,我注意到有些音符的正下方有小点。那是什么意思呢?

答:在音符下方或上方的点,叫断音。是一种让音符产生一种短促而尖锐的声音方式。在视频0分53秒,弦上产生了八分音符的断音,他们通常用跳弓弹奏,需要用弓做一个弹跳,在所有弦乐器的跳弓弹奏中,这个是最慢的。

Q:At 0:53, I noticed that some notes have the dots directly under them. What does that mean?

A:Dots under or above notes are called staccato which is a form of articulating notes to produce a short, and sharp sound. At 0:53, when the string have staccato eighth notes, they usually use a spiccato stoke, which requires the bow o bounce at the frog and is the slowest of all off string strokes for string instruments.

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问:在难度更大的作品中,音乐家们是怎么数音符节拍的?

答:帮助音乐家们把握节奏的一种方法,是用脚拍动,在大脑中听它的拍子。更为复杂的节奏,通常包含八分音符/附点八分音符/附点四分音符,他们会在大脑中细分,或者是用脚拍动细分。细分就是,我们不按四四拍中的1 2 3 4去数每拍,而是数每拍和它们之间的拍子(四四拍这样数:1嗒 2嗒 3嗒 4嗒,这个嗒就是之间的拍子)。这个是数八分音符(在四四拍中,一个小节中有八个八分音符),而不是四分音符(在四四拍中,一个小节有四个四分音符)。

Q:How do musicians count notes in harder pieces?

A:One thing that helps musicians to count rhythms is to tap their foot to the beat of hear it in their heads. With complicated rhythms, usually with eighth/dotted eighth/dotted quarter notes they will subdivide in their head or with their foot. Subdividing is when instead of counting every beat (one, two, three, four in 4/4), you count each beat and the in-between beat (one and two and three and four and in 4/4, the ands are in-between beats ). This is counting every eighth note (eight of them in a 4/4 measure), instead of every quarter note (four of them in a 4/4 measure).

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问:除了像其他音符那样放一个附点在休止符后面这种方式之外,你可以用延音连接线来连接休止符吗?

答:从来没有休止符被连接的。它们只能一个接着一个的写。休止符可以附点,就像它们的音符副本,但是如果你在四四拍中想写一个2.5拍的休止符,你可以写成一个双附点二分休止符(不太常用),或者一个二分休止符后面跟一个八分的休止符。因为它们是静默的,就声音而言,演奏的时候它们是自动连接在一起的。

Q:Can you tie rests rather than putting a dot after them like you can with notes?

A:Rests don't ever get tied, they are just written one after another. They can be dotted, just like their note counterparts, but if you wanted 2.5 beats of rest in 4/4 time, you could either write a double-dotted half rest (less common) OR a half rest followed by an eighth rest. Because they are silence, as opposed to of sound, they automatically "tie" together when performed.

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问:如果你把一个四分音符演奏六次,再在它后面放一个附点,是说,这不是六个音符而是七个音符吗?

答:附点并不是改变你弹奏多少个音符,它只是改变音符的时长。例如,如果你弹奏1个附点二分音符(1个二分音符是两拍),它会持续3拍,而不是1拍。所以如果你弹奏6个二分音符,而最后一个是附点二分音符,那么它就会是13拍,而不是12拍。希望你能理解:)

Q:if you play a quarter note like 6 times and put a dot after it does that mean that instead of 6 notes there is 7 notes?

A:A dot does not change how many notes you play, it just changes the length of the note. For example, if you played a dotted half note (a half note is two beats) it would last three beats instead of one. So if you played six half notes and the last one is dotted, then it would have thirteen beats instead of twelve. I home that makes sense :)

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问:为什么人们演奏时不使用不同的音乐谱本,就像单簧管有单簧管的乐谱,长号有长号的乐谱,等等?

答:你在视频中看到的是指挥的总谱。它里面有所有乐器的乐谱,所以说它是个总谱。每个演奏者都有他们自己的谱本,里面只有他们自己演奏部分的谱子。而且,同一个乐器,也有可能演奏不同的部分。例如,如果你有9个小号,3个小号演奏第一部分,这是最复杂和最有挑战性的。其他几个小号演奏第二部分,这个通常是比较类似的。同样可以以此类推……

Q:why do the people playing not have separate music papers than the rest of the others like the clarinets have the clarinet music and trombones have trombone music and so on ?

A:What you are seeing in the video is the conductor's score. It has all the instruments on top of each other. It's the master list, so to speak.

Each individual musician has their own sheet which only has their part. Also, there can be different parts for the same instrument. For example, if you have a section of 9 trumpets, 3 can be playing the 1st part, which is the most complex or challenging. A few more could be playing the second part, which is usually similar. And so on...

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问:有一种组合不同类型的音符,来完成一个全音符的方法吗?比如说用一个二分音符和2个四分音符?

答:有,这样是可以的,如果是常见的四四拍的一个小节的话。你查看一下视频的1分25秒。希望对你有帮助。

Q:Is there a way you can combine more than one different type of note to make a whole note like A half and 2 4ths ?

A:Yes you can. ( if the measure is 4/4 usually)... chech it out... In the video at 1:25...Hope that helps.

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问:视频3分40秒,第二小节中,为什么四分音符上下颠倒,底部朝上,而且音符的符干被连接起来了?

答:通常符干朝上或朝下,取决于它在五线谱上的位置,以便摆放的更好一些。在中间线以上的所有音符,符干是朝下的。在中间线以下的音符,符干是朝上的。但是,有时需要在一条五线谱上写不止一个乐曲部分。这种情况会发生在钢琴曲作品中,一只手弹奏两条线,形成一个三部分的乐曲结构。或者,在管弦乐中,有时候一个乐器会占用不止一条线。在弦乐器中,有时候会演奏成双弦(这个部分里每个人要弹奏谱写的所有音符),或者如果另外的情况,在木管乐器、铜管乐器中,只能一次弹奏一个音符,这个乐曲部分会被细分到每一个部门,每人演奏一条线,而他们在这个部门的合作者需要演奏另外一条线。在这些情况下,顶部的谱线上符干朝上,底部的谱线符干朝下会更合理,因为这样会看起来更清楚,每个人立刻就会知道他们自己该演奏的部分。这也使用在为混声合唱的简谱中。小节会体现节奏,当我们写一个八分音符,要在符干的尾部画一个符尾。16分音符有两个符尾,32分音符有三个符尾,以此类推。但我们弹奏这些音符时,为了能够弹奏出正确的节奏,仍然需要知道音符时值是多少。所以来连接这个音符的第一个符杠,提示我们它们是四分音符。而后面的所有符杠,是用来代替符干上的更多的符尾。

Q:at 3:40 in the second bar why are the quarter notes upside down and right side up and have bars connected to the stem of the note?

A:Usually the stem goes up or down depending on where it is on the stave because it fits better. Any notes above the middle line have their stems pointing down and and below the middle line have them pointing up. However, sometimes it's necessary to write more than one part in one stave. This can happen in piano pieces where one hand plays two lines to get a three-part texture, or in orchestras there are sometimes more than one line in each instrument - on stringed instruments this can sometimes be played by double stopping (where everyone in the section plays all the notes which are written) or if this is not possible, or in woodwind/brass instruments where it is only possible to play one note at a time, they section would divide so on each desk, one person plays one line and their desk partner would play the other line. In cases like these, it makes more sense to have the top line with stems pointing up at the lower line with stems pointing down because it's much clearer to read so everyone immediately knows which part is theirs. This is also used in short score for SATB choirs. The bars are showing the rhythm - when we draw single eighth notes, they have a flick on the end of the stem. 16th notes have two of these, 32nd notes have three, and so on. When we beam these notes, we still need to know what the note values are in order to play the right rhythms, so the first beam connecting the notes shows us they are quarter notes, and any beams after that are replacing the extra flicks on the stems.

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问:我很好奇,这些演奏家们从乐谱的底部,切换到开头,为什么会如此之快?而且整个演奏过程都没有磕磕绊绊?

答:答案就是一个词,毅力。他们持续不断的练习,攻克各种难题,然后获得成功。很可能是他们几乎所有的业余时间都在练习。

Q:I am curious how do the musicians start from the bottom and rise from the top so quickly and had obstacles their whole way through?

A:The answer is a one-worder. Perseverance. They persevered against the odds and managed to make it to the top, probably by practicing in almost all of their free time.

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问:我还是不能理解,附点有什么用?

答:增加音符时值。例如:附点二分音符,就是两拍加一拍,等于3拍。

附点四分音符,就是1拍加半拍。以此类推。希望有帮助:)

Q:I still don't get what the dot is for?

A:It adds half its value. Example: Dotted half note. the two beats plus one. 3 beats

dotted quarter note. one beat plus half a beat is 1 and(1 +).

and so on and so forth. Hope it helps :)

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下节课:

设定拍子记号的上拍为每小节2拍和3拍(音乐基础-音符与节奏03)

订阅“可汗教学视频”头条号,第一时间观看下节视频

我们的微信公众号:khanxy(长按可复制)可以查看全部中文版教学视频。

作者:头条号 / 可汗教学视频

链接:http://toutiao.com/i6267717280587579906/

来源:头条号(今日头条旗下创作平台)

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